The Small Claims Court process made simple

legal actionHave you considered alternatives to court?
Have you considered using an alternative dispute resolution service before taking someone to the Small Claims Court? These ways may be quicker cheaper and more simple. But if you have followed all the tips on how to complain, used the book and the ADR avenues are not open to you then when all else fails and you can’t get the money you are owed you may choose to go to the Small Claims Court. There isn’t actually a Small Claims Court. It is the County Court through which a simple shorter process is available. Usually hearings last less than a day.

There are different processes in Scotland (where you can claim for up to £3,000 or up to

£5,000 depending on case) and Northern Ireland £3,000.

You must try and resolve the matter before applying to the court. The court will expect you to have done this and given the defendant warning about going to court if a satisfactory response is not received within a set time. This is called a “Letter before action” which needs to state the facts – that there is money owed, why it is owed and how much is owed. The demand, with a reasonable period (usually 14 days is sufficient for the debt to be repaid), needs to state that if acknowledgment or reply is not received within 14 days, then proceedings will be prepared and issued.

What to consider before using the Small Claims Court

  • It takes ages. From start to court hearing is usually about 6 months. The process is relatively simple but not always completely clear, and changes, so don’t be caught out if you have been through the process before and read through all the information about all the stages and possible outcomes. It takes 6 months because there is time between all the stages of different paperwork
  • If you are thinking of taking a large organisation like Tesco to court as I did, the chances of you being paid when you win are of course I really wanted to not be paid in time so I could send the bailiffs in and I didn’t get paid but it was just the usual poor internal communication. But seriously, if you take a rip off builder to court for example, consider the chances of being paid, the potential further costs of enforcing the judgement, and the builder going bankrupt.
  • Whether you can take on further stress knowing that the whole process will take 6 months and a fair bit of your time putting evidence together and undertaking the court (I did not find the court paperwork cumbersome but putting evidence together can be).
  • The likelihood of winning.

Fees
£10,000 the case can still go through the small claims process but if you as a claimant lose you may have to pay the defendant’s costs. Claims for personal injury must be under £1,000. It also needs to be less than £1,000 when a tenant is claiming against their landlord because they want repairs or other work undertaken on the property and those works are less than £1,000. In Scotland and Northern Ireland, the Small Claims Court cannot be used to claim personal injury compensation at all. If you’re filing a personal injury claim in Scotland or Northern Ireland, contact a solicitor for advice on how to begin proceedings.

You may be exempt from paying fees if you are on a low income but there is a long form to fill out to discover if you are eligible.

Using Money Claim Online (MCOL) is cheaper and I would recommend you use it. You can still ‘phone the court for advice (administrative) and when I have done so I have found them really helpful.

Process
When you apply online all the details you need are on the website, but these are the very basics. You fill out a form from your local court but ideally online. Here you fill out all the details of the claim and contact details. One you keep and one is sent to the defendant. If it is complicated seek legal advice (Citizens Advice is free). You can also claim interest at 8%. The court sends a copy to the defendant.

The defendant can accept the claim and pay you, or they can make an offer of how to pay. You can accept this offer and if the defendant doesn’t pay you can take further legal action to enforce payment. If you do not accept the offer you will need to give your reasons and a court official will decide what is reasonable and will send both of you an order for payment (‘judgment for claimant after determination’). If you are not happy with this decision you can write to the court giving your reasons.  A judge will make a final decision and if the defendant does not keep to this arrangement you can take enforcement action.

If the defendant chooses to defend the case, they must respond within 14 days. A questionnaire is then sent to both parties. The parties will at this stage indicate whether they wish to try small claims mediation. Once all Direction Questionnaires are received the file is then referred to the District Judge for allocation. If parties have indicated that they wish to try mediation the District Judge will list the case for hearing for a date in the future and refer to mediation. If mediation is successful then the hearing will be cancelled, if not then the Claimant would pay the hearing fee 14 days before the hearing and the hearing will take place.

If mediation is successful then the Claimant would not get the issue fee back as this is for the issue of the claim and allocation, The fees that have been paid by the Claimant should be taken into account when accepting a settlement sum from the   Defendant.

A date and time is set for the hearing. Evidence is exchanged between the parties at least 14 days before the court hearing date.

Sometimes the court will not set a final hearing date at the allocation stage (when both parties are sent questionnaires). It could instead propose that the claim is dealt with without a hearing. If agreed by both parties it could be decided on papers only. The judge could hold a preliminary hearing if the claim requires special directions or where the judge feels that one party has no real prospect of succeeding and wants to sort out the claim as soon as possible to save everyone time and expense – or if the papers do not show any reasonable grounds for bringing the claim. A preliminary hearing, therefore, could become a final hearing where the matter is decided.

If the defendant doesn’t respond within the 14 days the judge can decide the case.

If the judge finds in your favour the judge will provide reasons for the decision. You will win your court costs.

If the defendant does not pay you can enforce the judgement. You have four choices:

Bailiffs for which you will pay another fee that the defendant will have to repay and fill out a “Warrant of control form”. The bailiff will attend the defendant’s property within 7 days and see if there are goods that can be sold. The defendant can make an offer to pay in instalments which you can agree or reject. If you reject you will return to court for the judge to determine repayment. You can add further costs for attending this hearing from the defendant.

Get money deducted from wages for which you will need to fill out a form to request that the defendant’s employer takes money from their wages to pay the debt – an “Attachment of earnings order”.

Freeze assets or money in an account for which you will need to fill out a“Third party debt order” so that assets in the defendant’s bank or building society are frozen and the court will decide if the money can be used to pay the   debt.

Charge the person’s land or property. You can ask the court to charge the defendant’s or company’s land or property for which you will need to fill out a “Charging order”. If the land or property is sold, the defendant must pay this charge before they get their money.

At the court and on the Government website you will find all the necessary forms and details of the process and details of the various possible outcomes and charges for different enforcements.

Tips for preparing and being in, court

  • Sue the right person, check you have the registered not just the trading name for example
  • Read everything the court sends you carefully
  • When using appendices (I had numerous in the Tesco case) number them and refer to each piece by the number in the explanation in Make it easy for the judge.
  • Clearly demonstrate how the law has been broken g. “The photo of item in appendix x shows described fault.”
  • Use good English and get someone to check it if you are
  • Check deadlines for court
  • Check and double check your paperwork and, unless you are absolutely sure it makes perfect sense, get someone to to check through for you.
  • Be objective don’t use any emotive
  • Be polite and precise
  • When at court be respectful and allow for them running
  • Don’t forget to claim for court fees, any out of pocket expenses for going to court and to provide receipts for these.

I’ve been to court three times, one of them a builder took me! I won all 3 times, one of them being against Tesco. I have also helped other people through the process when we have not succeeded through other means! Fees at point of publishing this post are here.

A film for CAB on options open to you when you can’t get joy through customer services:

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6 Responses to The Small Claims Court process made simple

  1. c miers says:

    My brother has served 3 small claims on me all involving the same text message conversations regarding a breakdown of costs for work done for a family member, I believe he is serving another 3 involving over £50,000, a preliminary hearing has been advise by the court, I believe that this individual has become a vexatious litigant, how would one go about reporting the person and stopping a ridiculous situation getting worse.

    • The Complaining Cow says:

      Take specialist legal advice – this isn’t a consumer issue I’m afraid. You’ll need to be looking at counter suing is my guess.

  2. Mavis Campbell says:

    We went to a family court regarding access to our grandson
    We would have had a good chance of achieving this because of the cafcass report saying we should see him.
    After many visits and thousands of pounds applying to go to court a hearing was booked
    During the start of the hearing it became obvious we had not had access to the respondents statements
    Our solicitor left us high and dry saying he was embarrassed
    The judge adjourned saying we needed representation, the respondents wanted the cost of the solicitor for that day, but the judge deferred saying she wanted Milner and Elledge the solicitors to explain
    My claim is we paid £2000 for the solicitor who was in court for about a hour and half
    The solicitor Kim Elledge who we did not see before case we were represented by her colleague said in a statement to the court we had discussed the statements the day before which we never because we had never seen them, and when we did the statements were ludicrous character assassinating but the judge went with them, that cost us another £2000
    Due to having to employ another firm of solicitors in all just to have hearing it cost us over £5000 so in all the failed hearing cost us £9000
    Is it possible to go to a small claims court for this or am I wasting my time

    • The Complaining Cow says:

      You’re talking about taking a solicitor to court – you would need take specialist advice from a solicitor willing to take the case on, possibly on a no win no fee basis.

  3. Amanda S says:

    We paid a deposit for a new build house (under pressure from the estate agents who advised us that there were other parties interested) which was due to be within walking distance of a train station that was being built in 2019, or so the online brochure and the agents themselves told us. It was important to us because my husband is blind and public transport is essential. We could wait 18 months for the train but that was one of the key selling points for us.
    The sales process began and was arduous, and although the reservation deposit contract stated we had 4 weeks to exchange it was taking longer than that, although we never heard anything from the vendor to complain.
    Shortly afterwards I discovered that the train station was not set to be built until 2022, a fact which was known locally and also was an established fact by the time they had created their online brochure. I advised the vendor we were pulling out of the sale. They have kept the deposit, stated they are not responsible for 3rd party delays, that the marketing information does not form part of the contract and that they were generous in giving us extra time to complete!
    I believe that their statements about the train station (and i note they have updated their website to reflect the correct timescales for the station opening) were misleading, and whether it was innocent or negligent it was nevertheless misrepresentation.
    What are your thoughts?

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