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Travel in the time of Covid Your rights explained

Refused a refund on your holiday? Refused a refund on your flight? Do you book a holiday?

Coronavirus has brought chaos to the world. In its path consumer travel plans have been disrupted indefinitely, so what are your rights and what can you do when companies won’t play ball?

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Table of Contents

My flight was cancelled and the airline is only offering a credit note to be used on another flight. Do I have to accept it?

Many airlines are trying this trick. You are legally entitled to a full refund under Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 and under IATA regulations for companies which are IATA members. Some are offering vouchers or credit notes.

The Denied Boarding Regulation applies to passengers departing from an airport within the EU, whatever the airline is, and also applies to passengers departing from an airport outside the EU for an airport within the EU, if the operating air carrier is a Community carrier. (I.e. a carrier with a valid operating license granted by an EU state).

You do NOT have to accept this. However, do consider it if you can. The travel sector has obviously been hugely hit by this pandemic and there is a high risk of companies folding if they refund everyone immediately and it will help cashflow if they can retain some payments. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) says that the sector is looking at a loss of $252bn (£202bn) should the lockdown last three months.

Full refunds for cancelled flight should be made within 7 days.

Do I have ATOL cover if I accept a voucher?

The CAA was not clear on whether you will be covered by ATOL protection should the company fall into administration. However, if the voucher is worded correctly you will retain the ATOL cover should the airline fall into administration before you have used it. This means that even if the airline fails you will still get your money back. You should also be able to claim a refund if you cannot use the voucher and you should ensure that this is part of the agreement.

It would not provide a comment despite a number of requests to do so.

Update 18/07/20 The CAA provided information on ATOL Protected Covid-19 Refund Credit Notes which are now covered by the ATOL protection.

Update 23/10/20 Atol holders are receiving confirmation that the CAA “will now consider claims for RCNs issued between 10 March and 31 December 2020 (inclusive)”.

However, the CAA says: “Any vouchers issued after 1 January 2021 will only be payable under the provisions of the ATT Payment Policy.”

Update 27/04/21 The Government and the Air Travel Trust (ATT) have confirmed that refund credit notes (RCNs) will now benefit from ATOL protection until 30 September 2022, a 12-month extension to the scheme.

The validity period for issuing RCNs has also been extended and will now continue until further notice. The ATT will provide at least one month’s notice in advance of ending the scheme. These extensions mean that consumers whose package holiday bookings are cancelled will be able to safely accept a refund credit note where it is suitable for them.

Bear in mind that you could be waiting a long time for a refund and if the company goes under that time will be even longer.

Should I consider a voucher/credit note for travel?

Some airlines are looking at giving an extra “Thankyou” for taking a voucher. Aer Lingus, for example, is giving 10% on top. Some will also make the voucher transferable, so you can give it to someone else. Explore what the company is offering and what you can negotiate!

Nor do you have to accept a change in date.

Update 18/07/20 Transport Secretary Grant Shapps has finally stepped in and said that the government will protect RCNs issued by travel companies.

Read more: – Which?

See Coronavirus and travel – who’s taking advantage? for more details about what airlines are doing and what regulatory bodies aren’t doing! The post was written 04 April 2020 and nothing has improved.

I am highly unlikely to travel.  How do I insist on a full refund?

Some airlines such as BA and EasyJet are insisting that you phone to get the refund and are not providing a system to do this online. One could be very cynical about why they have not undertaken the more cost-effective online process. However, the phone lines are extremely busy, having to deal with thousands more calls a day than normal.

Others are now allowing it through an online form but people are struggling to get the sites to submit the information. This could be site overload it could be the company making it difficult….!

So, you can hold on for hours while you get on with cleaning your home or something or keep on trying to submit a form! Or you can beat them. Contact the CEO. Go to and find the email address for the CEO of your airline. You won’t get a response from the CEO but it will be received and dealt with as an escalated case.

Be assertive. Make it clear that under the aforementioned Regulations you are entitled to a full refund. Normally, I would say give it a time limit of 14 days at the most. However, one has to be reasonable and understand that they will have hundreds of thousands of requests, so although you can put this in, be flexible. State that if you do not get a refund you will go to the relevant ADR provider or CAA if the airline is not a member, or go to the Small Claims Court or claim under Section 75 if you paid by credit card.

If the airline has said it will give you a refund insist on a date by which you expect to be refunded and state that if you do not receive it by this date you will take further action as detailed above.

Edit 01/06/21 we are so far into the pandemic now that there is no reason for the delay and you should insist on the 14 days limit.

What should I do if I still can’t get a refund?

Try to avoid going to ADR by following advice in this post about getting a refund as there are a number of issues with ADR in this sector and the CAA. See More Ombudsman Omnishambles.

Go to the Moneyclaims service which is the Small Claims Court, fill out everything following the advice in the link above and take a screenshot at the point before you have to pay and send that with your email to the CEO. We are hearing this tactic being hugely successful.

If you paid by bank transfer (always pay by credit card where you can!) you may be covered by Chargeback so you can threaten this if applicable.

If you get a rejection then contact your Credit Card provider as the company is in breach of the Law so you will get the money refunded and it will claim from the airline. You will need the evidence that the airline has refused the refund though, so make sure you get that in writing or evidence of them not responding by a deadline.

Is the regulator doing anything to help consumers?

It is worth noting, however, that the CAA has very little information or help on its website saying only that airlines should be giving full refunds. It appears to be doing absolutely nothing to ensure they do.

Update 01/07/20 the CAA has published a review and says that it is working with airlines to ensure that they are providing full refunds and doing it in a timely manner. It has still stopped short of indicating that it will actually take any action unlike the Competition and Markets Authority which has made holiday companies change their stance on full refunds and made them do it. When you contact airlines to ensure you get a full refund it may be worth quoting the CAA and copying them in to any correspondence.

CMA steps in where the CAA fears to tread CMA is undertaking work in this area despite it being the CAA responsible.

I cannot get a satisfactory response from any company

If you do not receive a satisfactory response, you can go to the Small Claims Court online fill out all the details including what you are claiming for (add in costs of taking them to court and out of pocket expenses such as parking) go right up to the point of providing payment details and the submission button. Send an email before action stating that you will be taking them to court if you do not receive a satisfactory response within a week. If you still do not get a satisfactory response you should try the suggestions above before deciding whether you wish to take the company to court as detailed above.

You also have the Chargeback and Section 75 options detailed above.

If you still don’t get anything it will be your choice whether you go to court. It is highly unlikely that any company would want to go to court and open the flood gates.

I had a package holiday booked but the travel agent has only partially refunded. What can I do?

Many travel agents are refunding as quickly as they can. However, they are struggling to get airlines to refund them, so where possible are refunding other elements of the package with a view to refunding the flight when they can.

Strictly speaking they should be refunding in full but a number of travel agents have gone into administration. Linda Reynolds, a freelance personal travel agent, says to consumers wanting to get their money back from travel agents to “Please bear with us. Small companies are going bust trying to do the right thing. We often can refund part of the package but are waiting on the airlines who are refusing to give refunds.”

So, if you can, be patient with the travel agent, especially if they have already partially refunded you and see the paragraph below.

Shouldn’t the travel agent pay within 14 days though?

Normally, yes. Under The Package Travel and Linked Travel Arrangements Regulations 2018 you are entitled to the full refund within 14 days. However see “I had a package holiday booked but the travel agent has only partially refunded – What can I do?” above.

ABTA has said :

“The rules around 14 day refunds were never designed for the mass cancellation of holidays, which is why we are asking for more time for travel businesses to fulfil this requirement – customers will not lose their right to a refund, and their money is not at risk.”

ABTA wants to see changes in policy that would strengthen the regulatory basis and extend the window for Refund Credit Notes. It says on its website:

“The European Commission has already relaxed its position on the regulations, and as a result many other EU countries including France, Italy, Belgium, Spain, Germany, The Netherlands and Denmark have taken action to amend their laws and/or provide additional guidance as a result of the crisis.”

The UK Government has yet to do anything in this regard.

Edit 01/06/21 we are so far into the pandemic now that there is no reason for the delay and you should insist on the 14 days limit.

What should I look for in a Refund Credit Note?

ABTA is recommending that businesses offer – and consumers accept – a Refund Credit Note. This would, in effect work as an IOU and the company should then refund in full (if the consumer does not want to rebook). It has said these should be dated up to 31st July 2020. It urges consumers to accept this and provides the following guidelines to ensure that you retain the ABTA/ATOL cover if the company fails.

“Refund Credit Notes may look different depending on your travel provider, but they should all comprise the following:

  • An expiry date, which is the date to which your money is protected, and is based on your travel company’s financial protection arrangements. You are entitled to re-book or have a cash refund by this date at the latest (if your original booking was for a package holiday).
  • The value of the Refund Credit Note must be equal in value to the amount you paid for the original booking (or less the amount your travel provider has offered you as a part cash refund).
  • The Refund Credit Note must include the original booking details and reference.
  • The Refund Credit Note must not include any other amount offered as a rebooking incentive or other offer. Any such offers must be documented separately and are not covered by any scheme of financial protection.
  • You should retain all previous booking documentation including booking confirmations, ATOL Certificates where appropriate and proofs of payment.

Please be patient and work with the company rather than against them to protect both business and your own interests.

My travel company says I still have to pay the balance for a holiday due to be taken later in the year but I don’t want to go. What can I do?

Companies have grounded airlines and put a stop to all holidays to be taken from different dates. At the moment you will still be expected to pay the balance for any holiday that could, in theory, be taken. If you do not pay the balance you will be in breach of contract and will not be entitled to a refund of the deposit. As the weeks go by it is highly likely that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office will extend the dates, effectively banning all non-essential travel and/or companies will extend the grounding and/or some countries will not be allowing flights into their country. When and if this happens you will then be entitled to a refund, as above.

Make sure you pay on a credit card to give you extra protection. You will be able to claim from the credit card company as advised above should a refund be rejected.

I have a holiday booked and paid for due to be taken later in the year. Can I get a refund?

The FCO has advised against all but essential travel indefinitely, so in theory you should be able to get full refunds. However, in reality, given the current situation, you will need to wait until nearer the due date to start the process for a refund.

You will be entitled to a full refund if you want it once the date has been confirmed as included dates where travel is stopped as above.

Update – 08/07/20 As restrictions are lifted this will now depend on if the flight is still going. Check the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for advice.

An event I was going to later in the year has been cancelled but it is possible that the flight will still go. Will I get the money back?

This depends on whether you booked the flights and accommodation separately. If you booked them together, as a package, then you will be covered under the Package Travel and Linked Travel Arrangements 2018 because the tour operator has made a “significant change” to the booking so you can accept an alternative or demand a full refund.

If you booked the flight separately it becomes more difficult. The event cost will be refunded but the airline will say that you could still travel and given the state of the sector airlines are unlikely to show goodwill! However, in theory, the event organiser should pay for consequential loss. In the UK this would be using the Consumer Rights Act 2015 but may prove more difficult in the EU and virtually impossible outside of it.

Take advice from the EU Consumer Centre regarding laws for each country.

Your travel insurance is unlikely to cover you but it is worth looking.

I have an underlying condition which makes me at greater risk of dying from coronavirus if holidays start again but I could be at risk. Am I more likely to get a full refund?

If the FCO says it is OK to travel to an area but you think it would still be dangerous for you, you can speak with the holiday provider and see if they would move the date, whilst waiving the change fee.

You can also look at your travel insurance and see the level of cover you have. Companies’ approaches to this will vary. Ensure you have all the evidence you can muster, including a letter from your doctor to help your case. You will have needed to have declared pre-existing conditions which you should always do anyway or you risk invalidating any insurance.

Each claim will be looked at on a case-by-case basis and if you are still not happy you could consider taking the matter to the Financial Ombudsman.

Can I book a holiday for later this year or early next year?

How long is a piece of string? The whole travel sector is in a state of flux. Whether we can travel later in the year will depend on how the situation develops, how long the lockdown is extended, what countries remain closed to visitors and Government advice about countries to which it is safe to travel.

In addition, all the travel insurance companies will not cover you for coronavirus related claims for new policies. Even your annual policy is unlikely to cover you. If you have an annual policy, renew it without a break, as most will continue the same level of cover as you already have now.

Booking a holiday now is, sadly, a high risk activity.

Update 08/07/20 some insurance companies will now cover you if you contract Covid-19 whilst on holiday, check policies.

How does Lockown 2 affect bookings?

If you booked a package trip and an element has been cancelled, then you will be covered under the Package Travel and Linked Travel Arrangements 2018 because the tour operator has made a “significant change” to the booking. If the flight is going ahead it could be more tricky as the provider could argue that nothing has been changed. However, given that someone from the UK would be breaking the law to travel it could be considered that the contract has been frustrated and therefore a refund is payable.

Ryanair has announced that it will not refund customers for flights that it will still run despite the Government advising against all but essential travel and a holiday is not essential.

Most airlines will let you move the date for free.

This situation has yet to be tested in court. Unfortunately I did not have a holiday booked or I would be testing it and setting that precedent!

What are the rules about claiming tax back on flights where I can’t claim a refund?

You may have not taken a flight for a reason which does not entitle you to a full refund. You are entitled to the Air Passenger Duty, (APD) which is  basically a tax for leaving Britain in the sky. You can get up to about £73 for an economy flight so not a huge amount but it is something.

Unfortunately the rules are pretty loose. There are no laws around what airlines are required to refund or what they can charge to administer despite making profit on the ticket!

Most airlines will refund taxes, fees and charges if travellers do not use their ticket. Other than APD, extras can include airport tax and fuel surcharges but, unlike APD, these aren’t set amounts and vary airline to airline and airport to airport so you will need to check with your airline.

I have booked flight and hotel separately – What are my rights?

If the flight is cancelled please see the questions related to airlines. In theory, the airline could be liable for the consequential loss if the hotel is still open. In reality, you would probably have to go to court to try and get it and it would be a test case. That said, as there is no precedent, they may pay out to stop you opening the flood gates.

If the hotel is not open and the flight is still running the same argument applies. In theory, the hotel could be liable for the consequential loss. It would be harder to fight if it is in another country but you could take advice from the EU Consumer Centre about the relevant laws.

I had a holiday booked in this country but the company is refusing a refund

You are entitled to a full refund if your booking is cancelled under the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Force majeure is not a reason for not paying out. Nor is saying such things as “Government Act” (There was a Coronavirus Act passed, it made no changes whatsoever to consumer rights) or “The Government cancelled your holiday not us!” or “You cancelled so have to pay a fee” if the company cancelled you do NOT pay anything and are entitled to a full refund.

Can I report a company not providing a refund?

The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) is closely monitoring businesses through this period. It has the power to open a consumer enforcement if it finds strong and compelling evidence that the law might have been broken and can call on the company or companies to change their behaviour by committing to formal undertakings or promises.

If they refuse, then the case can be taken to court. It is asking consumers to report price hikes or making misleading claims about their products and services.

The CAA for flight only cases is less effective CAA launches consultation and tells no-one… and Ryanair tops CAA refund complaints

I had a ferry crossing booked can I get a refund?

If your ferry service is cancelled or departure is delayed for more than 90 minutes, you are entitled to either an alternative sailing at the earliest opportunity at no additional cost or reimbursement of the ticket price which normally should be paid within seven days. But again please allow for delays with this repayment.

The company is claiming force majeure as a reason for not paying out can they do that?

No. Both the EU law and Package Travel and Linked Travel Arrangements 2018 apply in regards to cancellations due to unavoidable and extraordinary circumstances.

Am I entitled to any compensation for cancelled travel arrangements?

Normally in certain circumstances yes. See What to do when your flight is delayed – the full guide but it is not given when the delay or cancellation is due to extraordinary circumstances. I don’t think it is possible to have more extraordinary than the current situation.

I have to quarantine when back in the UK can I not go and get a refund?

Legally the company does not have to refund you. However many will do or may re arrange a different date as above. You may be covered by insurance and would need to check your policy.

Update 11/05/21 The new traffic light system will come into force  later this month. Those in red areas will mean you have to quarantine. The FOC has said you cannot travel for leisure purposes so companies must refund you as above.

Could a green holiday change colour whilst on holiday meaning I will have to quarantine on return?

Yes this could happen. So research holiday insurance policies thoroughly as you will incur a charge of £1,750 per person if you have to quarantine for 10 days.

I still can’t get anywhere how do I take it further?

You can go to the Small Claims Court. You can do it all online. Follow the advice re court above regarding the screenshot. Id still no joy, click submit!

You go through the court in country where company resides. Even when Brexit is done (all incompetence aside) this would still be the case. The European Consumer Centre will be able to help but it’s not hard.

For Ryanair the airline is based in ~Ireland so you will need to follow the procedure in Ireland.

What other information and help is there regarding Coronavirus and rights?

Getting help for Coronavirus cancellation claims and shopping links to all the posts re travel, events, weddings and shopping

Coronavirus and travel – who’s taking advantage? details on  the CAA, ABTA, agents and individual airlines the good the bad and the downright  illegal.

See Coronavirus related cancelled and postponed events your rights

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By Helen Dewdney, The Complaining Cow

Consultant | Author | Speaker | Blogger | Presenter | Journalist
Helping to make, prevent and deal with complaints

26 replies on “Travel in the time of Covid Your rights explained”

where do we stand if holidays companies request we move our booking (fully paid for ) to another date and then massively increase the price ? my holiday of £475 w/c 4.4.20 has been moved to 3.4.21 but with a further £172 required. can companies do this ?

Please read the post regarding not having to accept. You’re welcome.

It says above that ABTA is recommending that businesses offer — and consumers accept — a Refund Credit Note and these should be dated up to 31st July 2020. It urges consumers to accept this and provides guidelines to ensure that you retain the ABTA/ATOL cover if the company fails.
However I was supposed to travel on 20/4/20 and travel company says it is following ABTA policy but credit note will be dated to end of November 2021 and no refund before that date. I would have accepted a 3 month delay but 18 months is excessive to my mind. They would not deviate from this. Any suggestions? Thanks

The article is correct, it is not ABTA policy. Companies are bending and breaking rules. Please see article for what to do.

Thanks for this. I booked through a Travel Agent and the Travel Company says it will no longer deal with me but to deal with the travel agent. Which CEO should I be writing to?

To whom you gave the money – probably the Agent. Who will be struggling to get the money from the airline.

It appears that Credit Card companies are saying that a travel agent is simply directing you to get a flight from an airline or a package holiday from a tour operator and therefore classing them as a third party so section 75 reclaim will not be successful.
The tour operator in my case is refusing to speak to me, won’t refund and refers me back to the travel agent
The ATOL certificate states that the tour operator is the entity protecting the trip.
If this is the case then why has so much been printed over the years telling us to book package holidays using your credit card as extra protection?

Please follow the advice in the post, it is correct. You are entitled to a refund from the company that you paid. You need the evidence that it is refusing to pay out. If credit card company doesn’t pay out go to Financial Ombudsman. You’re welcome.

Thank you for your help. Received refund yesterday from travel agent. A big relief. Many thanks

Yay love it when someone gets a win. And even more when they take the time to say thank you. Very few do. Please do share anything on social media to help others and think about buying the book for your next complaint!

I have booked flights and hotels separately. At the moment everything is going ahead (booked for July through to the end of August) so I am not doing anything. If the airline cancel the flights, though, I obviously won’t be able to get to the hotels (they are in a different country). How do I stand then? Good will on the part of the hotels followed by charge back on the credit card? Thank you.

Hi, thanks for all the info.
I had booked for 13th June, Corfu with Ryanair and Airbnb. I contacted Airbnb to ask them to cancel and give me a refund, they agreed to do it within hours! Now I come to Ryanair – I’ve not heard from them, do you know the process?, do I have to contact them or do I wait till they contact me? Any advice would be appreciated, thanks.

Please see the info in the post above and links within regarding what you should do

Thanks, I’m armed with all the info when it comes to the time to argue for my refund, just don’t know how to start off? When I look at my reservation it only has a button for check in, and only telling you status of flights up to 24th May. Do I have to wait till they tell me that the flight is cancelled or do you think I should call/email just now? Thanks again.

Sorry, I couldn’t see what I was looking for. No worries Ryanair sent me an email this morning had a link to get a refund on it, the waiting begins. Thanks again, hope I don’t need to use the info, hope they refund soon!

It really is there quite clearly! How to contact etc. You are asking if you should call for example, post clearly states the alternative to phoning. When to contact etc.

My daughter had booked a sailing holiday in Greece for June through a U.K. company. This has now been cancelled by them but they are saying they will only give a partial refund – minus the deposit.
They have said this is because they have already passed on the deposit to Greek company for booking the boats. Are they able to withhold deposit in this way?


Hi Helen,
Please can you advise me where I stand with the holiday company changing the times of my flight home on an upcoming holiday (end of September). (They are saying the changed flight time is due to covid). The changed flight time is over 5 hours later, which for me is a significant change as it will mean that I will miss the last train home and will have to stay overnight in Birmingham and as a result of that, try to get the care home to extend my mother’s respite stay for another day (which may not be possible).
I would appreciate any suggestions as to how to proceed. If I cancel the holiday on the basis that it is an unacceptable change would I be entitled to a refund? If the care home cannot extend my mother’s stay then that will prevent me going as I’m my mother’s carer. Do you know whether I would be covered on that basis?
There are other factors which are putting me off going – if I do get stuck abroad it will cause significant problems for my mother’s care. The holiday will not be like the one I bought in terms of restrictions and uncertainties about getting home.
Many thanks

Airlines can change the times. It will depend on the company’s terms and conditions on what it deems a minor change and significant change. You should get a refund for a significant change but I think 5 will be considered as minor. However as you are seriously inconvenienced and would incur extra costs it is worth trying to get a refund. Do this in writing. If the package holiday is different to the one that was booked you can also get a refund through this route. All you need to know about booking/complaining about holidays/flights/travel

Hi I was offered a holiday by on their dm twitter after our from Spain is likely to be canceled, I accepted but didn’t hear from them so rang them the next day to see what was going on to then be told they are not going to give me the holiday they offered. Any advice please

Not clear what you are saying but answers will be in the post above

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